The end of apartheid

In this section, you can read about how apartheid came to an end.…

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The cooperation of Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk

Between 1990 and 1991, Nelson Mandela (acting as the leader of the ANC) and F.W. de Klerk worked together to create a strategy for ending the apartheid regime, which resulted in official repeals of most of its discriminatory laws, beginning in 1991.  

In 1992, after meeting some white opposition to the negotiations with the ANC, F.W. de Klerk held a referendum among white voters, asking whether the negotiations to end apartheid should continue. A considerably majority (~…

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The election of 1994

In the first democratic election of South Africa, the ANC (lead by Nelson Mandela) secured victory with ~62 % of the votes, making Mandela the first President in a free South Africa. However, the ANC did not receive the two-thirds majority that would have allowed them to alte…

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The Truth and Reconciliation Commission

After the end of apartheid, decisions had to be made about how to deal with state officials who had technically committed crimes against humanity as part of their political role in th…

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