Logos, ethos, and pathos

Table of contents


Leo Benedictus mainly relies on ethos (appeal to authority and shared values) and logos (appeal to reason) in “Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth”, but some important examples of pathos (appeal to emotions) can also be identified.

Benedictus appeals to the logic of the audience by using statistics and figures that clearly show the diversity found in London: “According to the last census, in 2001, 30% of London residents had been born outside England - that's 2.2 million people, to which we can add the unknown tens of thousands who didn't complete a census form”; “Altogether, more than 300 languages are spoken by the people of London, and the city has at least 50 non-indigenous communities with populations of 10,000 or more”.

He uses statistical evidence to show that Londoners do not have strong beliefs or traditions: “(…) in the 2001 census almost 16% of Londoners said they had ‘no religion’ at all - more than all the Hindus, Muslims, Jews and Buddhists put together”. He also suggests logical conclusions: “There is a good reason for all this. Other European nations have their own strong culinary traditions; the...

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