Rhetorical devices

In his speech at the Republican National Convention from 2004, Arnold Schwarzenegger uses rhetorical devices like repetitions, direct address, and allusions. He also occasionally uses devices like analogy, humor, metaphors and similes, and rhetorical questions to make his speech more convinci…

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Allusion

An allusion is a reference to a historical event, person, or artwork that the speaker considers relevant for the topic of his speech.

Schwarzenegger makes an allusion to Soviet Russia and communism, which is used to build a contrast with the freedom and opportunities America offers: “It was common belief that the Soviet soldiers could take a man out of his own car and ship him back to the Soviet Union as slave labor.” 

In another instance, the speaker alludes to …

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Analogy

An analogy is a type of comparison, designed to show similarities between different situations that the speaker believes relevant. An ironic analogy is that between the speaker’s movie, True Lies, and the Democratic Co…

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Direct Address

Direct address is frequently used in the speech, because the speaker addresses a live audience and wants to engage different segments of the general American public: “Anyway, my fellow Americans, this is an amazing moment for me.”; “To my fellow immigrants l…

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Humor and irony

The speaker begins his speech with humor and irony, alluding to his background as an actor. “This – This is like winning an Oscar. As if I would know!”  This is meant to relax the atmosphere. Soon after this, the speaker uses self-critical irony to seem more relatable (…

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Imagery, metaphors, and similes

The speaker constructs a lot of imagery (mental images) for the audience by using a personal narrative about his past in Austria and as a young American immigrant, making his speech more dynamic: “You know how proud I was? I …

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Repetition

The speaker uses repetition throughout the speech. This is because repetition is one of the easiest ways to make a message memorable for the audience.   

For example, the speaker uses the word “proud” repetitively to inspire patriotic feelings about the US.

Also, many of his phrases begin with a repetition which…

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Rhetorical questions

The speaker uses a few rhetorical questions, either to engage the audience or to give structure to his speech by introducing new points or arguments: “You know how proud I was? I was so proud that I walked around with the American flag around my shoulder all day long.…

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