Rhetorical devices

Direct references and allusions

The article “The Ideas Shaping a New India” by Anand Giridharadas includes several references. For example, in the introduction, Giridharadas mentions the day India declared its independence: “that midnight hour in 1947 when Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed the end of British rule. 

Here, he also references Jawaharlal Nehru, the former Prime Minister of India, as well as his famous “Tryst with Destiny” speech that Nehru delivered to mark India’s independence from the British Empire. Similarly, Giridharadas directly refers to the year 1991, “when India began to open its doors to the world and loosen the economic controls on its own citizens” .

Throughout the article, Giridharadas also mentions the caste system t...

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